MAN AND ANGELS
IN WHAT condition was man created?
"Thou hast made him a little lower than the angels." Psalms 8:5. What will be the final condition of the righteous? "Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection." Luke 20:36.
What are angels called?
"And of the angels He saith, Who maketh His angels spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire." Hebrews 1:7.
NATURAL AND SPIRITUAL BODIES
What is the difference between the two Adams?
"The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit." 1 Corinthians 15:45.
Are our present bodies natural or spiritual?
"That was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and afterward that which is spiritual." Verse 46. When will the righteous have spiritual bodies? "It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body." Verse 44.
To what does the sowing here spoken of refer?
"That which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die." Verse 36.
Note.—Man does not now possess the undying, spiritual nature of the angels, except as he holds it by faith in Christ; nor will he until the resurrec- tion. Then, if righteous, he will be made immortal, and he cannot die any more (Luke 20:36), because he will be "equal unto the angels."
MAN'S CREATION AND NATURE
What is man's nature?
"Shall mortal man be more just than God?" Job 4:17. Mortal: "Subject to death."—WEnsTER.
What is God's nature?
"The King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God." 1 Timothy 1:17.
NOTE.—The adjective "immortal," applied here to God, is not used else- where in the Authorized Version of the Bible. The original Greek word here is aphthartos (not liable to corruption, or decay). It occurs only six other times in the Bible, translated incorruptible, uncorruptible, and not corruptible, says Young's Analytical Concordance.
Of what was man formed in the beginning?
"God formed man of the dust of the ground." Genesis 2:7.
What act made him a living soul?
"And [God] breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." Same verse, last part.
Note.—The living soul was not put into the man; but the breath of life which was put into man made him—the man, formed of the earth—a living soul, or creature. "Man became a living being," says the Smith-Goodspeed American translation. (University of Chicago Press).
The Hebrew original translated "living soul" in this text•is nephesh chaiyah, the same expression used in Genesis 1:24, translated "living creature."
Nephesh is the only word used for "soul" in the Old Testament except in Job 30:15, where the original word is nedibah (occurring only once in the Bible), and in Isaiah 57:16, where it is neshamah (elsewhere most frequently translated "breath").
Besides being translated 428 times as "soul," nephesh is also translated: 119 times, life (life's, lives). For example: Genesis 1:20, 30; 9:4; 1 King 19:14; Job 6:11; Psalms 8:12.
29 times, person. For example: Numbers 31:19; 35:11, 15, 30; Deuteronomy
27:25; Joshua 20:3, 9; 1 Samuel 22:22.
15 times, mind. For example: Deuteronomy 18:6; Jeremiah 15:1.
15 times, heart. For example: Exodus 23:9; Proverbs 23:7.
9 times, creature. Genesis 1:21, 24; 2:19; 9:10, 12, 15, 16; Leviticus 11:46.
7 times, body (or, dead body). Leviticus 21:11; Numbers 6:6; 9:6, 7, 10;19:13; Haggai 2:13.
5 times, dead. Leviticus 19:28; 21:1; 22:4; Numbers 5:2; 6:11.
3 times, man. Exodus 12:16; 2 Kings 12:4; 1 Chronicles 5:21.
3 times, me. Numbers 23:10; Judges 16:30; 1 Kings 20:32.
3 times, beast. Leviticus 24:18.
2 times, ghost. Job 11:20; Jeremiah 15:9.
1 time, fish. Isaiah 19:10.
One or more times as various forms of the personal pronouns. (These figures are from Young's Analytical Concordance.)
Are other creatures besides man called "living souls"?
"The sea ... became as the blood of a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea." Revelation 16:3.
NOTE.—Look up the nine instances of nephesh, "soul," translated as "crea- ture," and you will see that they all refer to animals as "living creatures," or, according to the original Hebrew, "living souls." On the phrase nephesh chaiyah, living soul or creature, in Genesis 1:24, Adam Clarke says: "A general term to express all creatures endued with animal life, in any of its infinitely varied gradations, from the half-reasoning elephant down to the stupid potto, or lower still, to the polype, which seems equally to share the vegetable and animal life." (See also Genesis 1:20, 30, margin, and Numbers 31:28 for nephesh, "soul," referring to animals.)
Thus we find that man's immortality cannot be accounted for from the fact that he is a living soul, so far as the Old Testament is concerned.
But the text quoted, referring to the fishes of the sea as souls, is in the New Testament, where the word translated "soul" is always the Greek psuche. This word means primarily "breath; Latin, anima, especially as the sign of life, spirit." Although the pagan Greeks added a secondary meaning—"the soul or immortal part of man, as opposed to his body or perishable part, in Homer only in the significance of a departed soul, spirit, ghost: he represents it as bodiless and not to be seized by mortal hands" (see Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon)—the New Testament use of the word carries no such mean- ing. Psuche is rendered by the following words in our Authorized Bible:
58 times, soul.
40 times, life. For example: Mark 3:4; 10:45; Luke 6:9; 9:56; John 13:37; Romans 11:3; Revelation 8:9; 12:11.
3 times, mind. Acts 14:2; Philippians 1:27; Hebrews 12:3.
1 time, heart. Ephesians 6:6.
1 time, heartily (literally, from the soul). Colossians 3:23.
Psuche is also used once in John 10:24 and in 2 Corinthians 12:15, in idiomatic phrases that cannot be literally translated.
The words kill and destroy are used several times in regard to psuche. A living soul, then, is a living being of any sort, mortal or immortal.
Do others besides man have the "breath of life"?
"And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: all in whose nostrils was the breath of life." Genesis 7:21, 22.
Is the breath of animals the same as man's?
"Yea, they have all one breath; so that a man hath no preeminence above a beast." Ecclesiastes 3:19.
NOTE.—This present life of men, as of the rest of the animal creation, is dependent upon their breath. In this respect they have no pre-eminence over beasts. But men have a future unending life held out before them, and may, if they will, die in hope of eternal life, a fact which gives them a very great pre-eminence over the rest of the animal creation.
What does Job call that which God breathed into man's nostrils?
"All the while my breath is in me, and the spirit of God is in my nostrils." Job 27:3. ,
Note.—The spirit, then, is the breath. The margin says, "That is, the breath which God gave him." The word translated "breath" here is neshanwh; "spirit" is from mach, which is defined in Gesenius' Lexicon as "Ruach:
(1) Spirit, breath. (a) Breath of the mouth. . . . Hence used of anything quickly perishing.. . . Often used of the vital spirit. . . . (b) Breath of the nostrils, snuffing, snort- ing. . . . Hence anger. . . . (c) Breath of air, air in motion, i. e., breeze. . . . "
(2) Psuche anima, breath, life, the vital principle, which shows itself in the breathing of the mouth and nostrils (see No. 1, a, b), whether of men or of beasts, Ecclesiastes 3:21; 8:8; 12:7; . . . "
(3) The rational mind or spirit. (a) As the seat of the senses, affections, and emotions of various kinds. . . . (b) As to the mode of thinking and acting. . . . (c) Of will and counsel. . . . More rarely (d) it is applied to the intellect. . . . "
(4) The Spirit of God."—TREGELLES' translation (1875 ed.). The word spirit in the Old Testament is always from mach, except twice (Job 26:4 and Proverbs 20:27 from nesharnah). Ruach, besides being rendered 232 times as "spirit," is also translated: 90 times, wind. (Wind in the Old Testament is always a translation of mach.)
28 times, breath. For example: Genesis 6:17; 7:15, 22; Job 12:10; Psalms 104:29; 146:4; Ecclesiastes 3:19.
8 times, mind. Genesis 26:35; Proverbs 29:11; Ezekiel 11:5; 20:32; Daniel 5:20; Habakkuk 1:11.
4 times, blast. Exodus 15:8; 2 Kings 19:7; Isaiah 25:4; 37:7. Also translated one or more times by the following words: anger, air, tempest, vain.
When man gives up this spirit, what becomes of it?
"Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it." Ecclesiastes 12:7.
NotE.—That is, the spirit, or breath of life by which man lives, and which is only lent him of God, at death goes back to the great Author of life. Having come from Him, it belongs to God, and man can have it eternally only as a gift from God, through Jesus Christ. (Romans 6:23.)When the spirit goes back to God, the dust, from which man was made a "living soul" in the beginning, goes back as it was, to the earth, and the individual no longer exists as a living, conscious, thinking being, except as he exists in the mind, plan, and purpose of God through Christ and the resurrection. In this sense "all live unto Him" (Luke 20:38), for all are to be raised from the dead. (See John 5:28, 29; Acts 24:15; Romans 4:17.)
FROM WRATH AND DEATH TO LIFE
Who only have hold of the life eternal?
"He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life." 1 John 5:12.
NOTE.—The veriest sinner has this temporal life; but when he yields up this life, he has no prospect nor promise of the life eternal. That can be received only through Christ. Why was Adam driven from Eden and the tree of life? "And now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever." Genesis 3 :22.
What was done to keep man away from the tree of life?
"So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life." Verse 24.
How are all men in the natural state regarded?
"We all ... were by nature the children of wrath, even as others." Ephesians 2:3.
If the wrath of God abides on us, of what are we deprived?
"He that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him." John 3:36.
Through whom can we be saved from wrath and given immor- tality?
"Much more then, being now justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him." Romans 5:9. "Our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immor- tality to light through the gospel." 2 Timothy 1:10.
Who only possesses inherent immortality?
"The blessed and only potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; who only hath immortality." 1 Timothy 6 .:15, 16.
NoTE.—This word for immortality as applied to God is not aphtharsia, "incorruptibility," which is used twice, in 2 Timothy 1:10 and Romans 2:7, but athanasia, "deathlessness," which is used also in 1 Corinthians 15:53, 54. God is the only being who possesses original life or immortality in Him- self. All others must receive it from God. (See John 5:26; 6:27; 10:10, 27, 28; Romans 6:23; 1 John 5:11.)
To whom is eternal life promised?
"To them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory and honour and immortality, eternal life." Romans 2:7.
NoTE.—One does not need to seek for a thing which he already possesses. The fact that we are to seek for immortality is proof in itself that we do not now possess it.
When will the faithful be changed to immortality?
"We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed." 1 Corinthians 15:51, 52.
What is then to be swallowed up?
"So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory." Verse 54. (See verse 57.)
THERE is a fountain filled with blood,
Drawn from Immanuel's veins;
And sinners plunged beneath that flood,
Lose all their guilty stains.
The dying thief rejoiced to see
That fountain in his day;
And there may I, though vile as he,
Wash all my sins away.
Thou dying Lamb! Thy precious blood
Shall never lose its power,
Till all the ransomed church of God
Are saved, to sin no more.
E'er since by faith I saw the stream
Thy flowing wounds supply,
Redeeming love has been my theme,
And shall be till I die.
There in a nobler, sweeter song,
I'll sing Thy power to save,
When this poor lisping, stam'ring tongue
Is ransomed from the grave.