The Kingdom and the Anti-Christ

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                                       WHAT is said of the little horn as compared with the ten horns of the fourth beast of Daniel 7?

                                        "He shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings." Daniel 7:24.

                                NOTE.—The Papacy, which arose on the ruins of the Roman Empire, differed from all previous forms of Roman power in that it was an                                 ecclesiastical despotism claiming universal dominion over both spiritual and temporal affairs, especially the former. It was a union of                             church and state, frequently with the church dominant. (See page 213.)

    "Whatever Roman elements the barbarians and Arians left . . . [came] under the protection of the Bishop of Rome, who was the chief person there after the Emperor's disappearance.... The Roman Church in this way privily pushed itself into the place of the Roman World-Empire, of which it is the actual continuation; the empire has not perished, but has only undergone a transformation. . . . That is no mere 'clever remark,' but the recognition of the true state of the matter historically, and the most appropriate and fruitful way of describing the character of this Church. It still governs the nations. . . .

    It is a political creation, and as imposing as a World-Empire, because the continuation of the Roman Empire. The Pope, who calls himself 'King' and `Pontifex Maximus,' is Caesar's successor."—ADOLF HARNACK, What Is Christianity? (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1903), pp. 269, 270.

     "No, the Church will not descend into the tomb. It will survive the Empire. . . . At length a second empire will arise, and of this empire the Pope will be the master—more than this, he will be the master of Europe. He will dictate his orders to kings who will obey them."—JOSEPH TURMEL (under the pseudonym Andre Lagarde), The Latin Church in the Middle Ages (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915), preface, p. vi.


What attitude of rivalry was the Papacy, represented by the little horn, to assume toward the Most High?

"And he shall speak great words against the most High." Verse 25, first clause.

How does Paul, speaking of the man of sin, describe this same power?

"Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God." 2 Thessalonians 2:4.

    NOTE.—The following extracts from authoritative works, most of them by Roman Catholic writers, will indicate to what extent the Papacy has done this:

    "All names which in the Scriptures are applied to Christ, by virtue of which it is established that he is over the church, all the same names are applied to the Pope."—ROBERT BELLARMINE, Disputationes de Controversiis, Tom. 2, "Controversia Prima," Book 2 ("De Conciliorum Auctoritate" [On the Authority of Councils]), chap. 17 (1628 ed., vol. 1, p. 266), translated.

"For thou art the shepherd, thou art the physician, thou art the director, thou art the husbandman; finally, thou art another God on earth."—Christo- pher Marcellus's Oration in the Fifth Lateran Council, 4th session, in J. D. Mansi, Sacroruin Conciliorum. . . . Collectio, vol. 32, col. 761, translated.

    "For not man, but God separates those whom the Roman Pontiff (who exercises the functions, not of mere man, but of the true God), having weighed the necessity or benefit of the churches, dissolves, not by human but rather by divine authority."—"The Decretals of Gregory IX," book 1, title 7, chap. 3, in Corpus furls Canonici (1555-56 ed.), vol. 2, col. 203, translated.

    "The pope is the supreme judge of the law of the land. . . . He is the vicegerent of Christ, who is not only a Priest forever, but also King of kings and Lord of lords."—La Civilta Cattolica, March 18, 1871, quoted in LEONARD WOOLSEY BACON, An Inside View of the Vatican Council (American Tract Society ed.), p. 229, n.

    "Christ entrusted His office to the chief pontiff; . . . but all poWer in heaven and in earth has been given to Christ; . . . therefore the chief pontiff, who is His vicar, will have this power."—Corpus furis Canonici (1555-56 ed.), vol. 3, Extravagantes Communes, book 1, chap. 1, col. 29, translated from a gloss on the words Porno Subesse Romano Pontiff.

    "Hence the Pope is crowned with a triple crown, as king of heaven and of earth and of the lower regions. (Infernorum)."—LUCIUS FERRARIS, Prompta Bibliotheca, "Papa" (the Pope), art. 2 (1772-77 ed., vol. 6, p. 26), translated.

"All the faithful of Christ must believe that the Holy Apostolic See and the Roman Pontiff possesses the primacy over the whole world, and that the Roman Pontiff is the successor of blessed Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and is true vicar of Christ, and head of the whole Church, and father and teacher of all Christians; and that full power was given to him in blessed Peter to rule, feed, and govern the universal Church by Jesus Christ our Lord."— First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ (Pastor Aeternus, pub- lished in the fourth session of the Vatican Council, 1870), chap. 3, in PHILIP SCHAFF, Creeds of Christendom (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons), vol. 2, p. 262.     

    "We teach and define that it is a dogma divinely revealed: that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra, that is, when in discharge of the office of pastor and doctor of all Christians, by virtue of his supreme Apostolic author- ity, he defines a doctrine regarding faith or morals to be held by the universal Church, by the divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, is possessed of that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer willed that His Church should be endowed for defining doctrine regarding faith or morals; and that therefore such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable of themselves, and not from the consent of the Church."—Ibid., chap. 4, pp. 269, 270.

    Among the twenty-seven propositions known as the "Dictates of Hilde- brand," who, under the name of Gregory VII, was Pope from 1073-87, occur the following:—  

    "2. That the Roman pontiff alone is justly styled universal.

    "6. That no person . . . may live under the same roof with one excom- municated by the Pope.

    "9. That all princes should kiss his feet only.

    "12. That it is lawful for him to depose emperors.

    "18. That his sentence is not to be reviewed by any one; while he alone can review the decisions of all others.

    "19. That he can be judged by no one.

    "22. That the Roman Church never erred, nor will• it, according to the Scriptures, ever err.

    "26. That no one is to be accounted a Catholic who does not harmonize with the Roman Church.

    "27. That he can absolve subjects from their allegiance to unrighteous rulers."—CEsARE BARONIUS, Annales, year 1076, secs. 31-33, vol. 17 (1869 ed.), pp. 405, 406, translated.

    "They have assumed infallibility, which belongs only to God. They profess to forgive sins, which belongs only to God. They profess to open and shut heaven, which belongs only to God. They profess to be higher than all the kings of the earth, which belongs only to God. And they go beyond God in pretending to loose whole nations from their oath of allegiance to their kings, when such kings do not please them. And they go against God, when they give indulgences for sin. This is the worst.  of all blasphemies."—ADAM CLARKE, Commentary, on Daniel 7:25.



How was the little horn to treat God's people?

"And shall wear out the saints of the most High." Daniel 7:25.

    NOTE.—"Under these bloody maxims [previously mentioned] those persecutions were carried on, from the eleventh and twelfth centuries almost to the present day, which stand out on the page of history. After the signal of open martyrdom had been given in the canons of Orleans, there followed the extirpation of the Albigenses, under the form of a crusade, the establishment of the inquisition, the cruel attempts to extinguish the Waldenses, the martyrdoms of the Lollards, the cruel wars to exterminate the Bohemians, the burning of Huss and Jerome, and multitudes of other confessors, before the Reformation; and afterwards, the ferocious cruelties practised in the Netherlands, the martyrdoms of queen Mary's reign, the extinction, by fire and sword, of the reformation in Spain and Italy, by fraud and open persecu- tion in Poland, the massacre of Bartholomew, the persecution of the Hugue- nots by the League, . . . and all the cruelties and perjuries connected with the revocation of the edict of Nantz [Names]. These are the more open and conspicuous facts which explain the prophecy, besides the slow and secret murders of the holy tribunal of the inquisition."—REv. T. R. BIRKS, M.A.,

The Four Prophetic Empires, and the Kingdom of Messiah (1845 ed.), pp. 248, 249.

    The number of the victims of the Inquisition in Spain, is given in The History of the Inquisition in Spain, by Llorente, formerly secretary of the Inquisition (1827 ed.), page 583. This authority acknowledges that more than 300,000 suffered persecution in Spain alone, of whom 31,912 died in the flames. Millions more were slain for their faith throughout Europe.

    "That the Church of Rome has shed more innocent blood than any other institution that has ever existed among mankind, will be questioned by no Protestant who has a competent knowledge of history. The memorials, indeed, of many of her persecutions are now so scanty that it is impossible to form a complete conception of the multitude of her victims, and it is quite certain that no powers of imagination can adequately realise their sufferings."—W. E. H. LECKY, History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe (1910 ed.), vol. 2, p. 32. By permission of Longmans, Green and Co.

    See also quotation from The Catholic Encyclopedia on page 486.


What else does the prophecy say the little horn would do?

"And he shall think to change the times and the law." Daniel 7:25:third clause, R.V.

    "The pope is of so great authority and power that he can modify, explain, or interpret even divine laws. . . . The pope can modify divine law, since his power is not of man, but of God, and he acts as vicegerent of God upon earth."—Lucius FERRARIS, Prompta Bibliotheca, "Papa," art. 2, translated.

    Although the Ten Commandments, the law of God, are found in the Roman Catholic versions of the Scriptures, as they were originally given, yet the faithful are instructed from the catechisms of the church, and not directly from the Bible. As it appears in these, the law of God has been changed and virtually reenacted by the Papacy. Furthermore, communicants not only receive the law from the church but deal with the church concerning any alleged infractions of that law, and when they have satisfied the ecclesiastical authorities the whole matter is settled.

    The second commandment, which forbids the making of, and bowing down to, images, is omitted in Catholic catechisms, and the tenth, which forbids coveting, is divided into two. As evidence of the change which has been made in the law of God by the.papal power, and that it acknowledges the change and claims the author- ity to make it, note the following from Roman Catholic publications:

    "Q. Have you any other way of proving that the Church has power to institute festivals of precept?

    "A. Had she not such power, she could not have done that in which all modern religionists agree with her;—she could not have substituted the ob- servance of Sunday the first day of the week, for the observance of Saturday the seventh day, a change for which there is no Scriptural authority.','—REV. STEPHEN KEENAN, A Doctrinal Catechism, "On the Obedience Due to the Church," chap. 2, p. 174. (Imprimatur, John Cardinal McCloskey, archbishop of New York.)

    "Q. How prove you that the Church hath power to command feasts and holydays?

    "A. By the very act of changing the Sabbath into Sunday, which Protestants allow of; and therefore they fondly contradict themselves, by keeping Sunday strictly, and breaking most other feasts commanded by the same church.

    "Q. How prove you that?

    "A. Because by keeping Sunday, they acknowledge the Church's power to ordain feasts, and to command them under sin: and by not keeping the rest by her commanded, they again deny, in fact, the same power."—REv. HENRY TUBERVILLE, D.D., An Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine, p. 58.

    "Is not every Christian obliged to sanctify Sunday and to abstain on that day from unnecessary servile work? Is not the observance of this law among the most prominent of our sacred duties? But you may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctify."—JAMES CARDINAL GIBBONS, The Faith of Our Fathers (1917 ed.), pp. 72, 73.



Until what time were the saints, times, and laws of the Most High to be given into the hands of the little horn?

"And they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time." Daniel 7:25, last clause.

In what other prophecies is this same period mentioned?

"And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle,- that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent." Revelation 12:14. "And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue [margin, to make war] forty and two months." Revelation 13:5. (See also Revelation 11:2.) "And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days." Revelation 12:6.

In symbolic prophecy what length of time is represented by a day?

"After the number of the days in which ye searched the land, even forty days, each day for a year, shall ye bear your iniquities, even forty years." Numbers 14:34. (See Ezekiel 4:6.)

    NoTE.—A "time" in prophecy being the same as a year (Dan. 11:13, margin and R.V.), three and one-half times would be three and a half years. This is obviously the same as 42 months. And as both these periods are identified by the above texts as equivalent to a thousand two hundred and threescore days, it is evident that a prophetic year is composed of 360 days, or 12 months of 30 days each. A 30-day month would seem reasonable enough to a Jewish writer for general computation, for although the Jews had lunar months of 29 or 30 days, they called a 29-day month "hollow," or deficient, and a 30-day month "full." An ideal or theoretical year of "full" months would be 360 days long; but it must be remembered that such a 360-day year was not literal but symbolic, even to the writer of the prophecy. Since in prophecy a day repre- sents a year, the period, then, which was to mark the time of the supremacy of the little horn—the Papacy—over the saints, times, and law of God, would therefore be 1260 symbolic, or prophetic, days, or 1260 natural years.

        The decree of the emperor Justinian, issued in A.D. 533, recognized the pope as "head of all the holy churches." (Justinian's Code, book 1, title 1, sec. 4, in The Civil Law, translated by S. P. Scott, vol. 12, p. 12.) The over- whelming defeat of the Ostrogoths in the siege of Rome, five years later, A.D. 538, was a death blow to the independence of the Arian power then ruling Italy, and was therefore a notable date in the development of papal supremacy. With the year 538, then, commences the twelve hundred and sixty years of this prophecy, which would extend to the year 1798. The year 1793 was the year of the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution, and the year when the Roman Catholic religion was set aside in France and the worship of reason was established in its stead. As a direct result of the revolt against papal authority in the French Revolution, the French army, under Berthier, entered Rome, and the pope was taken prisoner in February, 1798, dying in exile at Valence, France, the following year. This year, 1798, during which this death stroke was inflicted upon the Papacy, fittingly and clearly marks the close of the long prophetic period mentioned in this prophecy.

What will finally be done with the dominion exercised by the little horn?

"But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end." Daniel 7:26.

To whom will the dominion finally be given?

"And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting king- dom, and all dominions shall serve and obey Him." Verse 27.